Senegal: A cultural paradox

After staying in Senegal for four months I have grown accustomed to the question – What do you think of Senegal? I always ask the other person to be a little more specific because I have a mixed bag of YES and NO’s in my repository of experiences. If you ask me whether I like people, culture and life in general? Then, it’s a yes to all three questions. Do you think that the economy is in good shape and poised to grow? Then the answer is NO.

People in Senegal are extremely warm and welcoming. This is reflected in their day-to-day lives, community functions, work place and even clothes. Unlike India, which is also undergoing economic transformation, people in Senegal are patient, content and easy going. A dinner in a restaurant can easily extend beyond an hour because most people delve into conversations while the staff takes 20-minutes to bring the menu. It takes another 20-minutes to order and then another 30 minutes finishing the food. Sometimes my urgency in placing the order and eating food surprises the staff at the restaurants and cafés. Senegal is so easy-going and laid back that if you don’t ask for the check it never arrives. Similarly, confrontations in the society are resolved by arguing politely about the issues and sometime involves several volunteers that listen to the parties and help them reach a settlement. For e.g. if one cars slightly rubs off another car on the road then there is small exchange of words by pulling cars aside or some honking. If the damage is serious then settlement is immediately reached by involving the curios bystanders to assess the damage. That’s it! I have never seen people getting into heated arguments, heckling or brawls. I’m sure it happens but is not so visible in regular life.

This sense of calm and satisfaction is also observed at work. People show up early but morning discussions are important and small talk takes priority. If something goes wrong with the equipment at a convention or an event then you don’t see people running helter-skelter to fix it. Usually a person is sent out to find the person who can fix the problem. While the technician takes 5 minutes to arrive and fix the issue, the crowd breaks down in chatter as if it was expected. The speaker/ organizers stay calm as if this were a part of the show. This is how most things work here. In the beginning I had reached a pre-mature conclusion that people were lazy and productivity at work was extremely low. This is the point where I was completely wrong. For I had assumed that people didn’t do enough. In the process I missed the point the people don’t want to do more.

Understanding culture and people takes time, observation, and interaction. People in Senegal are deeply rooted in their culture. The culture of Senegal is defined by four words namely – Kersa (respect for others), Tegin (good manners), Terranga (hospitality) and Thiossane that stands for history, tradition and culture. These four tenets of Senegalese life pretty much define how they conduct and live their lives. It took me four months to understand this aspect of life and accept it. In the process I learned that people were more happy, content and in harmony with each other. This is contrary to the life of modern societies, in which materialistic wealth is seen as an important factor for achieving happiness but we are always short or looking for it. From the western perspective output at work may seem inadequate but from the Senegalese perspective it’s adequate as long as someone is working on it. Relationships and people are given priority over work and its often more important to preserve those rather than getting the work done. I have now come accept this way of life and it raises a profound question in my mind – We live to work or work to live? I’m glad that I experienced this and I hope that I would take these values back with me.

Although these ideals are a good way to lead a life, they cannot exist without a stable/economically developed society. Ignoring the fact that economic development and good quality life are not mutually exclusive is like ignoring the very peaceful existence Senegal has enjoyed till now and the factors responsible for it. Thus it becomes all the more important for Senegalese people to be economically stable, which will ensure survival of this culture and values. An economically unstable society cannot thrive on good conduct and culture. This is where most people in Senegal disagree with me and firmly believe that they are better off given the prevailing economic environment, simply blaming the government for all shortcomings. Most Senegalese are oblivious to the fact that the country is heavily dependent on foreign aid and it is this constant influx of capital that it has managed to avoid wars, coups, and economic collapse that most of it neighbors have experienced in recent history.

Majority Senegalese believe that low agricultural productivity and underdeveloped infrastructure is an outcome of bad government policies. They also think that its entirely government’s responsibility to take care of agriculture and infrastructure industries. Although it is true to some extent, it would be wrong to just blame the government. Most millennial, start-up founders and businessmen have jumped onto the bandwagon of digitization/ ICT and ignored the opportunities in these foundational industries. They see digital businesses and service industry as the key to change the economic landscape. Universities, business schools and research centers also echo similar outlook with hardly any investment in R&D of agriculture, infrastructure and primary industries. It is only the foreign countries that see the opportunity and are thus investing heavily by leasing large swaths of land, building highways and investing in medical services amongst other industries. Senegalese people have nil or very little investment in these businesses. In my opinion agriculture forms the basis of a strong economy. All modern economies were built on agrarian societies, whose first goal was to become self sufficient in terms of food. Only when there is enough food for everyone, the governments and society can think of progressing into industrialized economy. It is very hard to find a country that was entirely able to skip this crucial step in transitioning from a developing country to a developed country. China and India are prime example of this transformation. Many young people are oblivious to this fact and strongly believe that recent growth in the ICT sector is the answer to end this dependency on foreign aids.

Even if we are to assume that ICT holds the key for economic transformation in Senegal there are other factors that pose as a major challenge. Some of these challenges are:

  1. Language – Today’s businesses are global and the primary medium of communication is English. People hardly speak English in this part of the world and this limits their reach and access to information.
  2. Limited natural resources –Senegal is not so rich in natural resources. For e.g. the entire energy requirement of Senegal is fulfilled by producing energy from imported oil. There is no hydro electricity or other forms of energy production. Surprisingly no one here in investing in renewable energy production given the high incidence of wind and sun all year long.
  3. Poor banking infrastructure and weak policies – BCEAO is the sole central bank for eight West African countries and the French treasury is the only guarantor. The French treasury sets the exchange rate between countries and the CFA is pegged to the Euro at a fixed rate. The French treasury also plays a big role in defining the policies that govern the BCEAO. Need I say more?
  4. Interference of international politics – Every government decision is heavily influenced by their French or American counterparts. I guess that’s the price you pay for This interference is noted not only in politics but also in the economic sphere. Most telecommunication companies, tourism businesses, and other important industries have international organizations holding majority stake.
  5. Dysfunctional relationship with neighbors – Senegal’s relationship with its immediate and extended neighbors is dysfunctional. One day they are friends and the next day you have a trade embargo that jeopardizes all the past efforts.
  6. Lack of R&D in agricultural, indigenous industries and life sciences – I met a lot of students, professionals and government officials but none seem to focus on mentioned areas. Other indigenous industries such as fishing, which is one of the biggest employers, are rapidly deteriorating and no investment is being done to improve its performance.

So going back to the original question – what do I think of Senegal – I have to say that I have mixed feelings. Most debates that start with that question somehow end with the preceding context. Although I am able to convince some people and my counter arguments raise a doubt in their minds it does not deter their belief in the Senegalese way of life. At one business event a similar conversation had captivated about 5 people and there seemed to be no end to it when one gentleman, who after patiently listening to all the arguments, turned to me and said – “You may be right but life goes on. The dinner is served and its time to eat. Everything else can wait but food should not!” For a moment I was stumped but I knew that he meant to say that with all the respect and warmth in his heart. Although the western values and way of life slowly creep into the Senegalese culture, I am hopeful that Senegal will continue to carry on the traditions and build upon that a progressive and sustainable country that will serve as an example for other West African nations.

Till then JerraJef !

What I did not expect in MIM

Hello Europe!

Hello Germany!

Hello Berlin!

Hello ESMT!

Helloooooo MIMs!

MIM Outdoor Day

Excited MIMs ready to start their outdoor day – 18 September 2014

I could not put into a few words or sentences how excited I was to be coming to ESMT. It is my first time in Europe, Germany, and Berlin. I was in the sky when I got the email from Admissions saying I am a successful candidate. I still remember how I was jumping up and down in my small room in Kuala Lumpur in the middle of the night, trying to find someone to tell of the good news. I still remember how I couldn’t keep my mouth close the next few days simply because I was so happy. “Sopha, I think you’ve been smiling too much”, one of my friends told me. Whatever. “You have no idea”, I told him.

That was roughly seven weeks ago. I did whatever it takes to get to Berlin on time to start the orientation with my fellow classmates that I was looking forward to meeting so much. 34 students of 19 nationalities from all over the world come together to form the most amazing class ever! This is not, however, what I did not expect in MIM program. Our awesome school had us all linked up in a platform called ConnectTo and we got in touch weeks before school starts. It was still exciting to finally get to meet everyone in real, though. Everyone has a story to tell, an awesome experience to share, and everyone brings in different flavor to the class. This is still NOT what I did not expect from MIM though.

Ladies & Gentlemen, let me present to you two things I did not expect when I signed up for the MIM Program:

  1. How well-structured the program is: well, you could say I have not much experience in professional business schools in Europe whatsoever, but I am telling you – this is the best pioneer program I’ve experienced in my life. I am amazed that even if this the first time MIM is launched, it feels as if everyone has been doing this their whole lives. Credit goes to the MIM team who have been doing a great job so far and we could not be happier to be a part of all these.
  2. Now comes the sour part: How intense the program is. If I were to run a poll on this topic, I believe 100% of my fellow MIM classmates will agree with me. Most of us come from engineering background, and even those who are from business and economic background also were expecting a more “relaxing” program. Most of us knew that MBA Program is intense, and we thought MIM would be less intense because it’s a 22-month program. WRONG. We are now in Week 3 of the course and we barely have any time to go around Berlin yet. Some of us even have to spend the weekend at school, and that explains a LOT.

I hope we will get used to this exciting and busy life very soon. I need to complete my Decision Theory homework now, so enjoy your Sunday everybody!

What I will miss next year…

It was obvious from my previous post that last Module was very strategic and therefore strategically busy. I feel somehow guilty that all blog-readers missed a lot of news and things which happened on campus, I will try to recover this flaw with my next posts…

At the same time our MBA program is rolling towards the end, and I decided to make my personal (of course, not full) “inventory list” of things I am going to miss next year, when I leave ESMT.

1. Astonishing view of Berliner Dom from Auditorium II windows
2. MBA Team: now I am really worrying that I can forget to mention all members of our great MBA team, so I am writing just like that – from Admission process to everyday organization of our schedule, support, and help – YOU ARE GREAT!!
3. Professors: their ability to surprise, passion in sharing knowledge and desire to challenge us every day
4. Information Center: just perfect place to be in, thank you!
5. Canteen: it is not “canteen” it is delicious-delicious-delicious cuisine and “mother-like” attention to details
6. Cleaning ladies Cleaning Queens: first people I see on campus in the morning with their cheerful “Guten Morgen!”, meaning that morning is REALLY good
7. My Team = My Classmates = My Colleagues: persistent students, simulation winners, “teammate-tutors” (thank you, Doreen), party fans, football players, Bergfest organizers, carnival lovers, and all-all-all you can see on these photos…

🙂

P.S. Special thanks to Adeline, Doreen, Junayd, Ming Li, Gerardo and Mukesh for sharing their nice pictures!

New Module Begins!

Hurray! This week we started 3rd Module! And already understood what strategic place it will take in our student lives: Business Strategy, Corporate Strategy, Strategic Human Resource Management, as well as Corporate Finance and Sustainable Business… No wonder, that as a gift for our studies we will receive Summer Break in July! To motivate my classmates, I would like to post some photos from Easter Break, which ended only a month ago ☺ And inspire summer vacation plans: Berlin is in heart of Europe – choose any destination you like and start your journey!

Turn Off the Light to Keep the Future Bright

Communication1

How many energy saving tips can you name right now? And how many of them can you start doing immediately and at no-cost?

I can help you: air dry dishes instead of using your dishwasher’s drying cycle, wash only full loads of clothes, check that windows and doors are closed when heating or cooling your home or office, take showers instead of baths, and of course turn things off when you are not in the room (lights, TVs, computers etc.).

Sounds simple, but do you really remember and follow these simple rules? Now we do!

Thanks to Angel, Kunal and Soledad – who brought one of the Social Impact Club initiatives into life – we have these nice and cute reminders in every study room.